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@ 江建祥
入陣曲 By 五月天

聖經上說:『人心比萬物都詭詐,壞到極處,誰能識透呢?』(Jer 17:9) 又說:『 我耶和華是鑒察 人心、試驗人肺腑的,要照各人所行的和他做事的結果報應他。』(Jer 17:10)雖然上帝的報應是必然的,但是祂報應的時辰卻不是我們可以左右的。 所以,在上帝能夠替我們伸冤報仇之前,我們必須懂得如何保護自己不受惡人詭詐、壞到極點的黑心所害。


下面是一般巧言令色者常施的故技,當觀看政論性節目或閱讀任何文宣的時候 (尤其是在聽唐湘龍或陳明義講話的時候),我們必須把在耳朵、眼睛和腦袋之間安置一個多層的過濾網,才能保證不受心靈的污染:

44 Foul Ways to Win an Argument
1. Accuse Your Opponent of Doing What He is Accusing You of (or worse) 以其人之道還治其人 (台聯和民進黨可以欺負林世嘉和邱璋,國民黨為何不能鍘掉王金平?)
2. Accuse Him of Sliding Down A Slippery Slope (that leads to disaster) 無端誇張不可能的後果
3. Appeal to Authority 訴諸權威
4. Appeal to Experience 倚老賣老
5. Appeal to Fear 訴諸恐懼 (恫嚇)
6. Appeal to Pity (or sympathy) 訴諸同情
7. Appeal to Popular Passions 訴諸眾人盲目的情緒
8. Appeal to Tradition or Faith (“the tried and true”) 訴諸傳統
9. Assume a Posture of Righteousness 高舉道德大旗
10. Attack the Person (and not the argument) 人身攻擊
11. Beg the Question預設立場
12. Call For Perfection (Demand impossible conditions) 漫天要價,坐地還錢
13. Create a False Dilemma (the Great Either/Or) 魚與熊掌
14. Devise Analogies (and Metaphors) That Support Your View (even if they are misleading or “false”) 錯誤不當的比喻
15. Question Your Opponent’s Conclusions 指控對手不合邏輯,其實自己才不合邏輯
16. Create Misgivings: Where There’s Smoke, There’s Fire 胡亂指控污衊造謠
17. Create A Straw Man 刻意曲解
18. Deny or Defend Your Inconsistencies堅決否認自己的矛盾
19. Demonize His Side Sanitize Yours 妖魔化對手,自己當聖人
20. Evade Questions, Gracefully 『優雅』地迴避問題
21. Flatter Your Audience 取悅聽眾
22. Hedge What You Say玩文字遊戲,故弄玄虛,拒絕表態
23. Ignore the Evidence 罔顧事實和證據
24. Ignore the Main Point 避重就輕
25. Attack Evidence (That Undermines Your Case) 攻擊質疑對你不利的證據
26. Insist Loudly on a Minor Point 小題大作
27. Use the Hard-Cruel-World Argument (to justify doing what is usually considered unethical)于豈其好辯哉?于不得已也!于豈好殺哉,于不得已也!于豈好色哉,于情不自禁也!
28. Make (Sweeping) Glittering Generalizations以偏概全
29. Make Much of Any Inconsistencies in Your Opponent’s Position濫情指控對手是偽君子
30. Make Your Opponent Look Ridiculous (“Lost in the Laugh”) 譏諷對手,讓他無地自容
31. Oversimplify the Issue 過度簡化問題
32. Raise Nothing But Objections 為反對而反對
33. Rewrite History (Have It Your Way) 改寫篡改歷史
34. Seek Your Vested Interests 攻擊對手的動機,卻假作正經高尚
35. Shift the Ground 顧左右而言他,玩文字遊戲以驅避問題
36. Shift the Burden of Proof推諉舉證責任(如果這不是關說,什麼才是關說?!)
37. Spin, Spin, Spin 巧言令色、為自己擦脂抹粉,強詞奪理
38. Talk in Vague Generalities 籠統 (呼攏瞞混)
39. Talk Double Talk 花言巧語,美化醜陋 (失敗者,變成有進步空間的期待者—永遠在走最後一里路的政治工作者)
40. Tell Big Lies 撒大謊 ,謊言講一百遍,就成真 (九二共識—Agreement to Disagree;台灣是中華民國,中華民國是台灣)
41. Treat Abstract Words and Symbols As If They Were Real Things 空言妄語 (公民社會。 。 。寧靜革命。 。 。
42. Throw In A Red Herring (or two) 以煽情、不相干的議題分散注意力
43. Throw in Some Statistics 濫用統計數字 (木瓜茜的絕活)
44. Use Double Standards (whenever you can) 雙重標準
(取自Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda (2008-01-02). The Thinker’s Guide to Fallacies: The Art of Mental Trickery (p. 36). Foundation for Critical Thinking. Kindle Edition).